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        1.   [文章作者:張宴 本文版本:v6.3 最后修改:2010.07.26 轉載請注明原文鏈接:http://blog.www.lukangtou.cn/nginx_php_v6/]

            前言:本文是我撰寫的關于搭建“Nginx + PHP(FastCGI)”Web服務器的第6篇文章。本系列文章作為國內最早詳細介紹 Nginx + PHP 安裝、配置、使用的資料之一,為推動 Nginx 在國內的發展產生了積極的作用。本文可能不斷更新小版本,請記住原文鏈接“http://blog.www.lukangtou.cn/nginx_php_v6/”,獲取最新內容。第6篇文章主要介紹了Nginx 0.8.x新的平滑重啟方式,將PHP升級到了5.2.14,修正了PEAR問題。另將MySQL 5.1.x升級到了5.5.x系列,配置文件變更較大。

            鏈接:《2007年9月的第1版》、《2007年12月的第2版》、《2008年6月的第3版》、《2008年8月的第4版》、《2009年5月的第5版

            點擊在新窗口中瀏覽此圖片

            Nginx ("engine x") 是一個高性能的 HTTP 和反向代理服務器,也是一個 IMAP/POP3/SMTP 代理服務器。 Nginx 是由 Igor Sysoev 為俄羅斯訪問量第二的 Rambler.ru 站點開發的,它已經在該站點運行超過三年了。Igor 將源代碼以類BSD許可證的形式發布。

            Nginx 超越 Apache 的高性能和穩定性,使得國內使用 Nginx 作為 Web 服務器的網站也越來越多,其中包括新浪博客、新浪播客、網易新聞、騰訊網、搜狐博客等門戶網站頻道,六間房、56.com等視頻分享網站,Discuz!官方論壇、水木社區等知名論壇,盛大在線、金山逍遙網等網絡游戲網站,豆瓣、人人網、YUPOO相冊、金山愛詞霸、迅雷在線等新興Web 2.0網站。



            Nginx 的官方中文維基:http://wiki.nginx.org/NginxChs



            在高并發連接的情況下,Nginx是Apache服務器不錯的替代品。Nginx同時也可以作為7層負載均衡服務器來使用。根據我的測試結果,Nginx 0.8.46 + PHP 5.2.14 (FastCGI) 可以承受3萬以上的并發連接數,相當于同等環境下Apache的10倍。

            根據我的經驗,4GB內存的服務器+Apache(prefork模式)一般只能處理3000個并發連接,因為它們將占用3GB以上的內存,還得為系統預留1GB的內存。我曾經就有兩臺Apache服務器,因為在配置文件中設置的MaxClients為4000,當Apache并發連接數達到3800時,導致服務器內存和Swap空間用滿而崩潰。

            而這臺 Nginx 0.8.46 + PHP 5.2.14 (FastCGI) 服務器在3萬并發連接下,開啟的10個Nginx進程消耗150M內存(15M*10=150M),開啟的64個php-cgi進程消耗1280M內存(20M*64=1280M),加上系統自身消耗的內存,總共消耗不到2GB內存。如果服務器內存較小,完全可以只開啟25個php-cgi進程,這樣php-cgi消耗的總內存數才500M。

            在3萬并發連接下,訪問Nginx 0.8.46 + PHP 5.2.14 (FastCGI) 服務器的PHP程序,仍然速度飛快。下圖為Nginx的狀態監控頁面,顯示的活動連接數為28457(關于Nginx的監控頁配置,會在本文接下來所給出的Nginx配置文件中寫明):

            點擊在新窗口中瀏覽此圖片

            我生產環境下的兩臺Nginx + PHP5(FastCGI)服務器,跑多個一般復雜的純PHP動態程序,單臺Nginx + PHP5(FastCGI)服務器跑PHP動態程序的處理能力已經超過“700次請求/秒”,相當于每天可以承受6000萬(700*60*60*24=60480000)的訪問量(更多信息見此),而服務器的系統負載也不高:

            點擊在新窗口中瀏覽此圖片

            2009年9月3日下午2:30,金山游戲《劍俠情緣網絡版叁》臨時維護1小時(http://kefu.xoyo.com/gonggao/jx3/2009-09-03/750438.shtml),大量玩家上官網,論壇、評論、客服等動態應用Nginx服務器集群,每臺服務器的Nginx活動連接數達到2.8萬,這是筆者遇到的Nginx生產環境最高并發值。

            點擊在新窗口中瀏覽此圖片



            下面是用100個并發連接分別去壓生產環境中同一負載均衡器VIP下、提供相同服務的兩臺服務器,一臺為Nginx,另一臺為Apache,Nginx每秒處理的請求數是Apache的兩倍多,Nginx服務器的系統負載、CPU使用率遠低于Apache:

            你可以將連接數開到10000~30000,去壓Nginx和Apache上的phpinfo.php,這是用瀏覽器訪問Nginx上的phpinfo.php一切正常,而訪問Apache服務器的phpinfo.php,則是該頁無法顯示。4G內存的服務器,即使再優化,Apache也很難在“webbench -c 30000 -t 60 http://xxx.xxx.xxx.xxx/phpinfo.php”的壓力情況下正常訪問,而調整參數優化后的Nginx可以。

            webbench 下載地址:http://blog.www.lukangtou.cn/post/288/

            注意:webbench 做壓力測試時,該軟件自身也會消耗CPU和內存資源,為了測試準確,請將 webbench 安裝在別的服務器上。

            測試結果:##### Nginx + PHP #####
          引用
          [root@localhost webbench-1.5]# webbench -c 100 -t 30 http://192.168.1.21/phpinfo.php
          Webbench - Simple Web Benchmark 1.5
          Copyright (c) Radim Kolar 1997-2004, GPL Open Source Software.

          Benchmarking: GET http://192.168.1.21/phpinfo.php
          100 clients, running 30 sec.

          Speed=102450 pages/min, 16490596 bytes/sec.
          Requests: 51225 susceed, 0 failed.

          top - 14:06:13 up 27 days,  2:25,  2 users,  load average: 14.57, 9.89, 6.51
          Tasks: 287 total,   4 running, 283 sleeping,   0 stopped,   0 zombie
          Cpu(s): 49.9% us,  6.7% sy,  0.0% ni, 41.4% id,  1.1% wa,  0.1% hi,  0.8% si
          Mem:   6230016k total,  2959468k used,  3270548k free,   635992k buffers
          Swap:  2031608k total,     3696k used,  2027912k free,  1231444k cached


            測試結果:#####  Apache + PHP #####
          引用
          [root@localhost webbench-1.5]# webbench -c 100 -t 30 http://192.168.1.27/phpinfo.php
          Webbench - Simple Web Benchmark 1.5
          Copyright (c) Radim Kolar 1997-2004, GPL Open Source Software.

          Benchmarking: GET http://192.168.1.27/phpinfo.php
          100 clients, running 30 sec.

          Speed=42184 pages/min, 31512914 bytes/sec.
          Requests: 21092 susceed, 0 failed.

          top - 14:06:20 up 27 days,  2:13,  2 users,  load average: 62.15, 26.36, 13.42
          Tasks: 318 total,   7 running, 310 sleeping,   0 stopped,   1 zombie
          Cpu(s): 80.4% us, 10.6% sy,  0.0% ni,  7.9% id,  0.1% wa,  0.1% hi,  0.9% si
          Mem:   6230016k total,  3075948k used,  3154068k free,   379896k buffers
          Swap:  2031608k total,    12592k used,  2019016k free,  1117868k cached




            為什么Nginx的性能要比Apache高得多?這得益于Nginx使用了最新的epoll(Linux 2.6內核)和kqueue(freebsd)網絡I/O模型,而Apache則使用的是傳統的select模型。目前Linux下能夠承受高并發訪問的Squid、Memcached都采用的是epoll網絡I/O模型。

            處理大量的連接的讀寫,Apache所采用的select網絡I/O模型非常低效。下面用一個比喻來解析Apache采用的select模型和Nginx采用的epoll模型進行之間的區別:

            假設你在大學讀書,住的宿舍樓有很多間房間,你的朋友要來找你。select版宿管大媽就會帶著你的朋友挨個房間去找,直到找到你為止。而epoll版宿管大媽會先記下每位同學的房間號,你的朋友來時,只需告訴你的朋友你住在哪個房間即可,不用親自帶著你的朋友滿大樓找人。如果來了10000個人,都要找自己住這棟樓的同學時,select版和epoll版宿管大媽,誰的效率更高,不言自明。同理,在高并發服務器中,輪詢I/O是最耗時間的操作之一,select和epoll的性能誰的性能更高,同樣十分明了。



            安裝步驟:
           ?。ㄏ到y要求:Linux 2.6+ 內核,本文中的Linux操作系統為CentOS 5.3,另在RedHat AS4上也安裝成功)

            一、獲取相關開源程序:
            1、【適用CentOS操作系統】利用CentOS Linux系統自帶的yum命令安裝、升級所需的程序庫(RedHat等其他Linux發行版可從安裝光盤中找到這些程序庫的RPM包,進行安裝):
          sudo -s
          LANG=C
          yum -y install gcc gcc-c++ autoconf libjpeg libjpeg-devel libpng libpng-devel freetype freetype-devel libxml2 libxml2-devel zlib zlib-devel glibc glibc-devel glib2 glib2-devel bzip2 bzip2-devel ncurses ncurses-devel curl curl-devel e2fsprogs e2fsprogs-devel krb5 krb5-devel libidn libidn-devel openssl openssl-devel openldap openldap-devel nss_ldap openldap-clients openldap-servers


            2、【適用RedHat操作系統】RedHat等其他Linux發行版可從安裝光盤中找到這些程序庫的RPM包(事先可通過類似“rpm -qa | grep libjpeg”的命令查看所需的RPM包是否存在,通常是“xxx-devel”不存在,需要安裝)。RedHat可以直接利用CentOS的RPM包安裝,以下是RPM包下載網址:
           ?、?、RedHat AS4 & CentOS 4
            http://mirrors.163.com/centos/4/os/i386/CentOS/RPMS/
            http://mirrors.163.com/centos/4/os/x86_64/CentOS/RPMS/

           ?、?、RedHat AS5 & CentOS 5
            http://mirrors.163.com/centos/5/os/i386/CentOS/
            http://mirrors.163.com/centos/5/os/x86_64/CentOS/

           ?、?、RPM包搜索網站
            http://rpm.pbone.net/
            http://www.rpmfind.net/

           ?、?、RedHat AS4 系統環境,通常情況下缺少的支持包安裝:
           ?、?、i386 系統

           ?、?、x86_64 系統


            3、【適用CentOS、RedHat及其它Linux操作系統】下載程序源碼包:
            本文中提到的所有開源軟件為截止到2010年07月26日的最新穩定版。
           ?、?、從軟件的官方網站下載:
          mkdir -p /data0/software
          cd /data0/software
          wget http://sysoev.ru/nginx/nginx-0.8.46.tar.gz
          wget http://www.php.net/get/php-5.2.14.tar.gz/from/this/mirror
          wget http://php-fpm.org/downloads/php-5.2.14-fpm-0.5.14.diff.gz
          wget http://dev.mysql.com/get/Downloads/MySQL-5.5/mysql-5.5.3-m3.tar.gz/from/http://mysql.he.net/
          wget http://ftp.gnu.org/pub/gnu/libiconv/libiconv-1.13.1.tar.gz
          wget "http://downloads.sourceforge.net/mcrypt/libmcrypt-2.5.8.tar.gz?modtime=1171868460&big_mirror=0"
          wget "http://downloads.sourceforge.net/mcrypt/mcrypt-2.6.8.tar.gz?modtime=1194463373&big_mirror=0"
          wget http://pecl.php.net/get/memcache-2.2.5.tgz
          wget "http://downloads.sourceforge.net/mhash/mhash-0.9.9.9.tar.gz?modtime=1175740843&big_mirror=0"
          wget ftp://ftp.csx.cam.ac.uk/pub/software/programming/pcre/pcre-8.10.tar.gz
          wget http://bart.eaccelerator.net/source/0.9.6.1/eaccelerator-0.9.6.1.tar.bz2
          wget http://pecl.php.net/get/PDO_MYSQL-1.0.2.tgz
          wget http://blog.www.lukangtou.cn/soft/linux/nginx_php/imagick/ImageMagick.tar.gz
          wget http://pecl.php.net/get/imagick-2.3.0.tgz

           ?、?、從blog.www.lukangtou.cn下載(比較穩定,只允許在本站,或者在Linux/Unix下通過Wget、Curl等命令下載以下軟件):
          mkdir -p /data0/software
          cd /data0/software
          wget http://blog.www.lukangtou.cn/soft/linux/nginx_php/nginx/nginx-0.8.46.tar.gz
          wget http://blog.www.lukangtou.cn/soft/linux/nginx_php/php/php-5.2.14.tar.gz
          wget http://blog.www.lukangtou.cn/soft/linux/nginx_php/phpfpm/php-5.2.14-fpm-0.5.14.diff.gz
          wget http://blog.www.lukangtou.cn/soft/linux/nginx_php/mysql/mysql-5.5.3-m3.tar.gz
          wget http://blog.www.lukangtou.cn/soft/linux/nginx_php/libiconv/libiconv-1.13.1.tar.gz
          wget http://blog.www.lukangtou.cn/soft/linux/nginx_php/mcrypt/libmcrypt-2.5.8.tar.gz
          wget http://blog.www.lukangtou.cn/soft/linux/nginx_php/mcrypt/mcrypt-2.6.8.tar.gz
          wget http://blog.www.lukangtou.cn/soft/linux/nginx_php/memcache/memcache-2.2.5.tgz
          wget http://blog.www.lukangtou.cn/soft/linux/nginx_php/mhash/mhash-0.9.9.9.tar.gz
          wget http://blog.www.lukangtou.cn/soft/linux/nginx_php/pcre/pcre-8.10.tar.gz
          wget http://blog.www.lukangtou.cn/soft/linux/nginx_php/eaccelerator/eaccelerator-0.9.6.1.tar.bz2
          wget http://blog.www.lukangtou.cn/soft/linux/nginx_php/pdo/PDO_MYSQL-1.0.2.tgz
          wget http://blog.www.lukangtou.cn/soft/linux/nginx_php/imagick/ImageMagick.tar.gz
          wget http://blog.www.lukangtou.cn/soft/linux/nginx_php/imagick/imagick-2.3.0.tgz



            二、安裝PHP 5.2.14(FastCGI模式)
            1、編譯安裝PHP 5.2.14所需的支持庫:
          tar zxvf libiconv-1.13.1.tar.gz
          cd libiconv-1.13.1/
          ./configure --prefix=/usr/local
          make
          make install
          cd ../

          tar zxvf libmcrypt-2.5.8.tar.gz
          cd libmcrypt-2.5.8/
          ./configure
          make
          make install
          /sbin/ldconfig
          cd libltdl/
          ./configure --enable-ltdl-install
          make
          make install
          cd ../../

          tar zxvf mhash-0.9.9.9.tar.gz
          cd mhash-0.9.9.9/
          ./configure
          make
          make install
          cd ../

          ln -s /usr/local/lib/libmcrypt.la /usr/lib/libmcrypt.la
          ln -s /usr/local/lib/libmcrypt.so /usr/lib/libmcrypt.so
          ln -s /usr/local/lib/libmcrypt.so.4 /usr/lib/libmcrypt.so.4
          ln -s /usr/local/lib/libmcrypt.so.4.4.8 /usr/lib/libmcrypt.so.4.4.8
          ln -s /usr/local/lib/libmhash.a /usr/lib/libmhash.a
          ln -s /usr/local/lib/libmhash.la /usr/lib/libmhash.la
          ln -s /usr/local/lib/libmhash.so /usr/lib/libmhash.so
          ln -s /usr/local/lib/libmhash.so.2 /usr/lib/libmhash.so.2
          ln -s /usr/local/lib/libmhash.so.2.0.1 /usr/lib/libmhash.so.2.0.1
          ln -s /usr/local/bin/libmcrypt-config /usr/bin/libmcrypt-config

          tar zxvf mcrypt-2.6.8.tar.gz
          cd mcrypt-2.6.8/
          /sbin/ldconfig
          ./configure
          make
          make install
          cd ../



            2、編譯安裝MySQL 5.5.3-m3
          /usr/sbin/groupadd mysql
          /usr/sbin/useradd -g mysql mysql
          tar zxvf mysql-5.5.3-m3.tar.gz
          cd mysql-5.5.3-m3/
          ./configure --prefix=/usr/local/webserver/mysql/ --enable-assembler --with-extra-charsets=complex --enable-thread-safe-client --with-big-tables --with-readline --with-ssl --with-embedded-server --enable-local-infile --with-plugins=partition,innobase,myisammrg
          make && make install
          chmod +w /usr/local/webserver/mysql
          chown -R mysql:mysql /usr/local/webserver/mysql
          cd ../



            附:以下為附加步驟,如果你想在這臺服務器上運行MySQL數據庫,則執行以下幾步。如果你只是希望讓PHP支持MySQL擴展庫,能夠連接其他服務器上的MySQL數據庫,那么,以下兩步無需執行。

           ?、?、創建MySQL數據庫存放目錄
          mkdir -p /data0/mysql/3306/data/
          mkdir -p /data0/mysql/3306/binlog/
          mkdir -p /data0/mysql/3306/relaylog/
          chown -R mysql:mysql /data0/mysql/


           ?、?、以mysql用戶帳號的身份建立數據表:
          /usr/local/webserver/mysql/bin/mysql_install_db --basedir=/usr/local/webserver/mysql --datadir=/data0/mysql/3306/data --user=mysql


           ?、?、創建my.cnf配置文件:
          vi /data0/mysql/3306/my.cnf

            輸入以下內容:
          引用
          [client]
          character-set-server = utf8
          port    = 3306
          socket  = /tmp/mysql.sock

          [mysqld]
          character-set-server = utf8
          replicate-ignore-db = mysql
          replicate-ignore-db = test
          replicate-ignore-db = information_schema
          user    = mysql
          port    = 3306
          socket  = /tmp/mysql.sock
          basedir = /usr/local/webserver/mysql
          datadir = /data0/mysql/3306/data
          log-error = /data0/mysql/3306/mysql_error.log
          pid-file = /data0/mysql/3306/mysql.pid
          open_files_limit    = 10240
          back_log = 600
          max_connections = 5000
          max_connect_errors = 6000
          table_cache = 614
          external-locking = FALSE
          max_allowed_packet = 32M
          sort_buffer_size = 1M
          join_buffer_size = 1M
          thread_cache_size = 300
          #thread_concurrency = 8
          query_cache_size = 512M
          query_cache_limit = 2M
          query_cache_min_res_unit = 2k
          default-storage-engine = MyISAM
          thread_stack = 192K
          transaction_isolation = READ-COMMITTED
          tmp_table_size = 246M
          max_heap_table_size = 246M
          long_query_time = 3
          log-slave-updates
          log-bin = /data0/mysql/3306/binlog/binlog
          binlog_cache_size = 4M
          binlog_format = MIXED
          max_binlog_cache_size = 8M
          max_binlog_size = 1G
          relay-log-index = /data0/mysql/3306/relaylog/relaylog
          relay-log-info-file = /data0/mysql/3306/relaylog/relaylog
          relay-log = /data0/mysql/3306/relaylog/relaylog
          expire_logs_days = 30
          key_buffer_size = 256M
          read_buffer_size = 1M
          read_rnd_buffer_size = 16M
          bulk_insert_buffer_size = 64M
          myisam_sort_buffer_size = 128M
          myisam_max_sort_file_size = 10G
          myisam_repair_threads = 1
          myisam_recover

          interactive_timeout = 120
          wait_timeout = 120

          skip-name-resolve
          #master-connect-retry = 10
          slave-skip-errors = 1032,1062,126,1114,1146,1048,1396

          #master-host     =   192.168.1.2
          #master-user     =   username
          #master-password =   password
          #master-port     =  3306

          server-id = 1

          innodb_additional_mem_pool_size = 16M
          innodb_buffer_pool_size = 512M
          innodb_data_file_path = ibdata1:256M:autoextend
          innodb_file_io_threads = 4
          innodb_thread_concurrency = 8
          innodb_flush_log_at_trx_commit = 2
          innodb_log_buffer_size = 16M
          innodb_log_file_size = 128M
          innodb_log_files_in_group = 3
          innodb_max_dirty_pages_pct = 90
          innodb_lock_wait_timeout = 120
          innodb_file_per_table = 0

          #log-slow-queries = /data0/mysql/3306/slow.log
          #long_query_time = 10

          [mysqldump]
          quick
          max_allowed_packet = 32M


           ?、?、創建管理MySQL數據庫的shell腳本:
          vi /data0/mysql/3306/mysql

            輸入以下內容(這里的用戶名admin和密碼12345678接下來的步驟會創建):
          #!/bin/sh

          mysql_port=3306
          mysql_username="admin"
          mysql_password="12345678"

          function_start_mysql()
          {
              printf "Starting MySQL...\n"
              /bin/sh /usr/local/webserver/mysql/bin/mysqld_safe --defaults-file=/data0/mysql/${mysql_port}/my.cnf 2>&1 > /dev/null &
          }

          function_stop_mysql()
          {
              printf "Stoping MySQL...\n"
              /usr/local/webserver/mysql/bin/mysqladmin -u ${mysql_username} -p${mysql_password} -S /tmp/mysql.sock shutdown
          }

          function_restart_mysql()
          {
              printf "Restarting MySQL...\n"
              function_stop_mysql
              sleep 5
              function_start_mysql
          }

          function_kill_mysql()
          {
              kill -9 $(ps -ef &#124; grep 'bin/mysqld_safe' &#124; grep ${mysql_port} &#124; awk '{printf $2}')
              kill -9 $(ps -ef &#124; grep 'libexec/mysqld' &#124; grep ${mysql_port} &#124; awk '{printf $2}')
          }

          if [ "$1" = "start" ]; then
              function_start_mysql
          elif [ "$1" = "stop" ]; then
              function_stop_mysql
          elif [ "$1" = "restart" ]; then
          function_restart_mysql
          elif [ "$1" = "kill" ]; then
          function_kill_mysql
          else
              printf "Usage: /data0/mysql/${mysql_port}/mysql {start&#124;stop&#124;restart&#124;kill}\n"
          fi

           ?、?、賦予shell腳本可執行權限:
          chmod +x /data0/mysql/3306/mysql


           ?、?、啟動MySQL:
          /data0/mysql/3306/mysql start


           ?、?、通過命令行登錄管理MySQL服務器(提示輸入密碼時直接回車):
          /usr/local/webserver/mysql/bin/mysql -u root -p -S /tmp/mysql.sock


           ?、?、輸入以下SQL語句,創建一個具有root權限的用戶(admin)和密碼(12345678):
          GRANT ALL PRIVILEGES ON *.* TO 'admin'@'localhost' IDENTIFIED BY '12345678';
          GRANT ALL PRIVILEGES ON *.* TO 'admin'@'127.0.0.1' IDENTIFIED BY '12345678';


           ?、?、(可選)停止MySQL:
          /data0/mysql/3306/mysql stop



            3、編譯安裝PHP(FastCGI模式)
          tar zxvf php-5.2.14.tar.gz
          gzip -cd php-5.2.14-fpm-0.5.14.diff.gz | patch -d php-5.2.14 -p1
          cd php-5.2.14/
          ./configure --prefix=/usr/local/webserver/php --with-config-file-path=/usr/local/webserver/php/etc --with-mysql=/usr/local/webserver/mysql --with-mysqli=/usr/local/webserver/mysql/bin/mysql_config --with-iconv-dir=/usr/local --with-freetype-dir --with-jpeg-dir --with-png-dir --with-zlib --with-libxml-dir=/usr --enable-xml --disable-rpath --enable-discard-path --enable-safe-mode --enable-bcmath --enable-shmop --enable-sysvsem --enable-inline-optimization --with-curl --with-curlwrappers --enable-mbregex --enable-fastcgi --enable-fpm --enable-force-cgi-redirect --enable-mbstring --with-mcrypt --with-gd --enable-gd-native-ttf --with-openssl --with-mhash --enable-pcntl --enable-sockets --with-ldap --with-ldap-sasl --with-xmlrpc --enable-zip --enable-soap
          make ZEND_EXTRA_LIBS='-liconv'
          make install
          cp php.ini-dist /usr/local/webserver/php/etc/php.ini
          cd ../



            4、編譯安裝PHP5擴展模塊
          tar zxvf memcache-2.2.5.tgz
          cd memcache-2.2.5/
          /usr/local/webserver/php/bin/phpize
          ./configure --with-php-config=/usr/local/webserver/php/bin/php-config
          make
          make install
          cd ../

          tar jxvf eaccelerator-0.9.6.1.tar.bz2
          cd eaccelerator-0.9.6.1/
          /usr/local/webserver/php/bin/phpize
          ./configure --enable-eaccelerator=shared --with-php-config=/usr/local/webserver/php/bin/php-config
          make
          make install
          cd ../

          tar zxvf PDO_MYSQL-1.0.2.tgz
          cd PDO_MYSQL-1.0.2/
          /usr/local/webserver/php/bin/phpize
          ./configure --with-php-config=/usr/local/webserver/php/bin/php-config --with-pdo-mysql=/usr/local/webserver/mysql
          make
          make install
          cd ../

          tar zxvf ImageMagick.tar.gz
          cd ImageMagick-6.5.1-2/
          ./configure
          make
          make install
          cd ../

          tar zxvf imagick-2.3.0.tgz
          cd imagick-2.3.0/
          /usr/local/webserver/php/bin/phpize
          ./configure --with-php-config=/usr/local/webserver/php/bin/php-config
          make
          make install
          cd ../


            5、修改php.ini文件
            手工修改:查找/usr/local/webserver/php/etc/php.ini中的extension_dir = "./"
            修改為extension_dir = "/usr/local/webserver/php/lib/php/extensions/no-debug-non-zts-20060613/"
            并在此行后增加以下幾行,然后保存:
            extension = "memcache.so"
            extension = "pdo_mysql.so"
            extension = "imagick.so"

            再查找output_buffering = Off
            修改為output_buffering = On

            再查找; cgi.fix_pathinfo=0
            修改為cgi.fix_pathinfo=0,防止Nginx文件類型錯誤解析漏洞。

            自動修改:若嫌手工修改麻煩,可執行以下shell命令,自動完成對php.ini文件的修改:
          sed -i 's#extension_dir = "./"#extension_dir = "/usr/local/webserver/php/lib/php/extensions/no-debug-non-zts-20060613/"\nextension = "memcache.so"\nextension = "pdo_mysql.so"\nextension = "imagick.so"\n#' /usr/local/webserver/php/etc/php.ini
          sed -i 's#output_buffering = Off#output_buffering = On#' /usr/local/webserver/php/etc/php.ini
          sed -i "s#; always_populate_raw_post_data = On#always_populate_raw_post_data = On#g" /usr/local/webserver/php/etc/php.ini
          sed -i "s#; cgi.fix_pathinfo=0#cgi.fix_pathinfo=0#g" /usr/local/webserver/php/etc/php.ini


            6、配置eAccelerator加速PHP:
          mkdir -p /usr/local/webserver/eaccelerator_cache
          vi /usr/local/webserver/php/etc/php.ini

            按shift+g鍵跳到配置文件的最末尾,加上以下配置信息:
          引用
          [eaccelerator]
          zend_extension="/usr/local/webserver/php/lib/php/extensions/no-debug-non-zts-20060613/eaccelerator.so"
          eaccelerator.shm_size="64"
          eaccelerator.cache_dir="/usr/local/webserver/eaccelerator_cache"
          eaccelerator.enable="1"
          eaccelerator.optimizer="1"
          eaccelerator.check_mtime="1"
          eaccelerator.debug="0"
          eaccelerator.filter=""
          eaccelerator.shm_max="0"
          eaccelerator.shm_ttl="3600"
          eaccelerator.shm_prune_period="3600"
          eaccelerator.shm_only="0"
          eaccelerator.compress="1"
          eaccelerator.compress_level="9"




            7、創建www用戶和組,以及供blog.www.lukangtou.cn和www.www.lukangtou.cn兩個虛擬主機使用的目錄:
          /usr/sbin/groupadd www
          /usr/sbin/useradd -g www www
          mkdir -p /data0/htdocs/blog
          chmod +w /data0/htdocs/blog
          chown -R www:www /data0/htdocs/blog
          mkdir -p /data0/htdocs/www
          chmod +w /data0/htdocs/www
          chown -R www:www /data0/htdocs/www


            8、創建php-fpm配置文件(php-fpm是為PHP打的一個FastCGI管理補丁,可以平滑變更php.ini配置而無需重啟php-cgi):
            在/usr/local/webserver/php/etc/目錄中創建php-fpm.conf文件:
          rm -f /usr/local/webserver/php/etc/php-fpm.conf
          vi /usr/local/webserver/php/etc/php-fpm.conf

            輸入以下內容(如果您安裝 Nginx + PHP 用于程序調試,請將以下的<value name="display_errors">0</value>改為<value name="display_errors">1</value>,以便顯示PHP錯誤信息,否則,Nginx 會報狀態為500的空白錯誤頁):
          <?xml version="1.0" ?>
          <configuration>

            All relative paths in this config are relative to php's install prefix

            <section name="global_options">

              Pid file
              <value name="pid_file">/usr/local/webserver/php/logs/php-fpm.pid</value>

              Error log file
              <value name="error_log">/usr/local/webserver/php/logs/php-fpm.log</value>

              Log level
              <value name="log_level">notice</value>

              When this amount of php processes exited with SIGSEGV or SIGBUS ...
              <value name="emergency_restart_threshold">10</value>

              ... in a less than this interval of time, a graceful restart will be initiated.
              Useful to work around accidental curruptions in accelerator's shared memory.
              <value name="emergency_restart_interval">1m</value>

              Time limit on waiting child's reaction on signals from master
              <value name="process_control_timeout">5s</value>

              Set to 'no' to debug fpm
              <value name="daemonize">yes</value>

            </section>

            <workers>

              <section name="pool">

                Name of pool. Used in logs and stats.
                <value name="name">default</value>

                Address to accept fastcgi requests on.
                Valid syntax is 'ip.ad.re.ss:port' or just 'port' or '/path/to/unix/socket'
                <value name="listen_address">127.0.0.1:9000</value>

                <value name="listen_options">

                  Set listen(2) backlog
                  <value name="backlog">-1</value>

                  Set permissions for unix socket, if one used.
                  In Linux read/write permissions must be set in order to allow connections from web server.
                  Many BSD-derrived systems allow connections regardless of permissions.
                  <value name="owner"></value>
                  <value name="group"></value>
                  <value name="mode">0666</value>
                </value>

                Additional php.ini defines, specific to this pool of workers.
                <value name="php_defines">
                  <value name="sendmail_path">/usr/sbin/sendmail -t -i</value>
                  <value name="display_errors">0</value>
                </value>

                Unix user of processes
                <value name="user">www</value>

                Unix group of processes
                <value name="group">www</value>

                Process manager settings
                <value name="pm">

                  Sets style of controling worker process count.
                  Valid values are 'static' and 'apache-like'
                  <value name="style">static</value>

                  Sets the limit on the number of simultaneous requests that will be served.
                  Equivalent to Apache MaxClients directive.
                  Equivalent to PHP_FCGI_CHILDREN environment in original php.fcgi
                  Used with any pm_style.
                  <value name="max_children">128</value>

                  Settings group for 'apache-like' pm style
                  <value name="apache_like">

                    Sets the number of server processes created on startup.
                    Used only when 'apache-like' pm_style is selected
                    <value name="StartServers">20</value>

                    Sets the desired minimum number of idle server processes.
                    Used only when 'apache-like' pm_style is selected
                    <value name="MinSpareServers">5</value>

                    Sets the desired maximum number of idle server processes.
                    Used only when 'apache-like' pm_style is selected
                    <value name="MaxSpareServers">35</value>

                  </value>

                </value>

                The timeout (in seconds) for serving a single request after which the worker process will be terminated
                Should be used when 'max_execution_time' ini option does not stop script execution for some reason
                '0s' means 'off'
                <value name="request_terminate_timeout">0s</value>

                The timeout (in seconds) for serving of single request after which a php backtrace will be dumped to slow.log file
                '0s' means 'off'
                <value name="request_slowlog_timeout">0s</value>

                The log file for slow requests
                <value name="slowlog">logs/slow.log</value>

                Set open file desc rlimit
                <value name="rlimit_files">65535</value>

                Set max core size rlimit
                <value name="rlimit_core">0</value>

                Chroot to this directory at the start, absolute path
                <value name="chroot"></value>

                Chdir to this directory at the start, absolute path
                <value name="chdir"></value>

                Redirect workers' stdout and stderr into main error log.
                If not set, they will be redirected to /dev/null, according to FastCGI specs
                <value name="catch_workers_output">yes</value>

                How much requests each process should execute before respawn.
                Useful to work around memory leaks in 3rd party libraries.
                For endless request processing please specify 0
                Equivalent to PHP_FCGI_MAX_REQUESTS
                <value name="max_requests">1024</value>

                Comma separated list of ipv4 addresses of FastCGI clients that allowed to connect.
                Equivalent to FCGI_WEB_SERVER_ADDRS environment in original php.fcgi (5.2.2+)
                Makes sense only with AF_INET listening socket.
                <value name="allowed_clients">127.0.0.1</value>

                Pass environment variables like LD_LIBRARY_PATH
                All $VARIABLEs are taken from current environment
                <value name="environment">
                  <value name="HOSTNAME">$HOSTNAME</value>
                  <value name="PATH">/usr/local/bin:/usr/bin:/bin</value>
                  <value name="TMP">/tmp</value>
                  <value name="TMPDIR">/tmp</value>
                  <value name="TEMP">/tmp</value>
                  <value name="OSTYPE">$OSTYPE</value>
                  <value name="MACHTYPE">$MACHTYPE</value>
                  <value name="MALLOC_CHECK_">2</value>
                </value>

              </section>

            </workers>

          </configuration>
            9、啟動php-cgi進程,監聽127.0.0.1的9000端口,進程數為128(如果服務器內存小于3GB,可以只開啟64個進程),用戶為www:
          ulimit -SHn 65535
          /usr/local/webserver/php/sbin/php-fpm start

            注:/usr/local/webserver/php/sbin/php-fpm還有其他參數,包括:start|stop|quit|restart|reload|logrotate,修改php.ini后不重啟php-cgi,重新加載配置文件使用reload。



            三、安裝Nginx 0.8.46
            1、安裝Nginx所需的pcre庫:
          tar zxvf pcre-8.10.tar.gz
          cd pcre-8.10/
          ./configure
          make && make install
          cd ../


            2、安裝Nginx
          tar zxvf nginx-0.8.46.tar.gz
          cd nginx-0.8.46/
          ./configure --user=www --group=www --prefix=/usr/local/webserver/nginx --with-http_stub_status_module --with-http_ssl_module
          make && make install
          cd ../


            3、創建Nginx日志目錄
          mkdir -p /data1/logs
          chmod +w /data1/logs
          chown -R www:www /data1/logs


            4、創建Nginx配置文件
           ?、?、在/usr/local/webserver/nginx/conf/目錄中創建nginx.conf文件:
          rm -f /usr/local/webserver/nginx/conf/nginx.conf
          vi /usr/local/webserver/nginx/conf/nginx.conf

            輸入以下內容:
          引用
          user  www www;

          worker_processes 8;

          error_log  /data1/logs/nginx_error.log  crit;

          pid        /usr/local/webserver/nginx/nginx.pid;

          #Specifies the value for maximum file descriptors that can be opened by this process.
          worker_rlimit_nofile 65535;

          events
          {
            use epoll;
            worker_connections 65535;
          }

          http
          {
            include       mime.types;
            default_type  application/octet-stream;

            #charset  gb2312;
                
            server_names_hash_bucket_size 128;
            client_header_buffer_size 32k;
            large_client_header_buffers 4 32k;
            client_max_body_size 8m;
                
            sendfile on;
            tcp_nopush     on;

            keepalive_timeout 60;

            tcp_nodelay on;

            fastcgi_connect_timeout 300;
            fastcgi_send_timeout 300;
            fastcgi_read_timeout 300;
            fastcgi_buffer_size 64k;
            fastcgi_buffers 4 64k;
            fastcgi_busy_buffers_size 128k;
            fastcgi_temp_file_write_size 128k;

            gzip on;
            gzip_min_length  1k;
            gzip_buffers     4 16k;
            gzip_http_version 1.0;
            gzip_comp_level 2;
            gzip_types       text/plain application/x-javascript text/css application/xml;
            gzip_vary on;

            #limit_zone  crawler  $binary_remote_addr  10m;

            server
            {
              listen       80;
              server_name  blog.www.lukangtou.cn;
              index index.html index.htm index.php;
              root  /data0/htdocs/blog;

              #limit_conn   crawler  20;    
                                      
              location ~ .*\.(php|php5)?$
              {      
                #fastcgi_pass  unix:/tmp/php-cgi.sock;
                fastcgi_pass  127.0.0.1:9000;
                fastcgi_index index.php;
                include fcgi.conf;
              }
              
              location ~ .*\.(gif|jpg|jpeg|png|bmp|swf)$
              {
                expires      30d;
              }

              location ~ .*\.(js|css)?$
              {
                expires      1h;
              }    

              log_format  access  '$remote_addr - $remote_user [$time_local] "$request" '
                        '$status $body_bytes_sent "$http_referer" '
                        '"$http_user_agent" $http_x_forwarded_for';
              access_log  /data1/logs/access.log  access;
                }

            server
            {
              listen       80;
              server_name  www.www.lukangtou.cn;
              index index.html index.htm index.php;
              root  /data0/htdocs/www;

              location ~ .*\.(php|php5)?$
              {      
                #fastcgi_pass  unix:/tmp/php-cgi.sock;
                fastcgi_pass  127.0.0.1:9000;
                fastcgi_index index.php;
                include fcgi.conf;
              }

              log_format  wwwlogs  '$remote_addr - $remote_user [$time_local] "$request" '
                         '$status $body_bytes_sent "$http_referer" '
                         '"$http_user_agent" $http_x_forwarded_for';
              access_log  /data1/logs/wwwlogs.log  wwwlogs;
            }

            server
            {
              listen  80;
              server_name  status.blog.www.lukangtou.cn;

              location / {
              stub_status on;
              access_log   off;
              }
            }
          }


           ?、?、在/usr/local/webserver/nginx/conf/目錄中創建fcgi.conf文件:
          vi /usr/local/webserver/nginx/conf/fcgi.conf

            輸入以下內容:
          引用
          fastcgi_param  GATEWAY_INTERFACE  CGI/1.1;
          fastcgi_param  SERVER_SOFTWARE    nginx;

          fastcgi_param  QUERY_STRING       $query_string;
          fastcgi_param  REQUEST_METHOD     $request_method;
          fastcgi_param  CONTENT_TYPE       $content_type;
          fastcgi_param  CONTENT_LENGTH     $content_length;

          fastcgi_param  SCRIPT_FILENAME    $document_root$fastcgi_script_name;
          fastcgi_param  SCRIPT_NAME        $fastcgi_script_name;
          fastcgi_param  REQUEST_URI        $request_uri;
          fastcgi_param  DOCUMENT_URI       $document_uri;
          fastcgi_param  DOCUMENT_ROOT      $document_root;
          fastcgi_param  SERVER_PROTOCOL    $server_protocol;

          fastcgi_param  REMOTE_ADDR        $remote_addr;
          fastcgi_param  REMOTE_PORT        $remote_port;
          fastcgi_param  SERVER_ADDR        $server_addr;
          fastcgi_param  SERVER_PORT        $server_port;
          fastcgi_param  SERVER_NAME        $server_name;

          # PHP only, required if PHP was built with --enable-force-cgi-redirect
          fastcgi_param  REDIRECT_STATUS    200;


            5、啟動Nginx
          ulimit -SHn 65535
          /usr/local/webserver/nginx/sbin/nginx



            四、配置開機自動啟動Nginx + PHP
          vi /etc/rc.local

            在末尾增加以下內容:
          引用
          ulimit -SHn 65535
          /usr/local/webserver/php/sbin/php-fpm start
          /usr/local/webserver/nginx/sbin/nginx



            五、優化Linux內核參數
          vi /etc/sysctl.conf

            在末尾增加以下內容:
          引用
          # Add
          net.ipv4.tcp_max_syn_backlog = 65536
          net.core.netdev_max_backlog =  32768
          net.core.somaxconn = 32768

          net.core.wmem_default = 8388608
          net.core.rmem_default = 8388608
          net.core.rmem_max = 16777216
          net.core.wmem_max = 16777216

          net.ipv4.tcp_timestamps = 0
          net.ipv4.tcp_synack_retries = 2
          net.ipv4.tcp_syn_retries = 2

          net.ipv4.tcp_tw_recycle = 1
          #net.ipv4.tcp_tw_len = 1
          net.ipv4.tcp_tw_reuse = 1

          net.ipv4.tcp_mem = 94500000 915000000 927000000
          net.ipv4.tcp_max_orphans = 3276800

          #net.ipv4.tcp_fin_timeout = 30
          #net.ipv4.tcp_keepalive_time = 120
          net.ipv4.ip_local_port_range = 1024  65535


            使配置立即生效:
          /sbin/sysctl -p



            六、在不停止Nginx服務的情況下平滑變更Nginx配置
            1、修改/usr/local/webserver/nginx/conf/nginx.conf配置文件后,請執行以下命令檢查配置文件是否正確:
          /usr/local/webserver/nginx/sbin/nginx -t

            如果屏幕顯示以下兩行信息,說明配置文件正確:
            the configuration file /usr/local/webserver/nginx/conf/nginx.conf syntax is ok
            the configuration file /usr/local/webserver/nginx/conf/nginx.conf was tested successfully


            2、平滑重啟:
           ?、?、對于Nginx 0.8.x版本,現在平滑重啟Nginx配置非常簡單,執行以下命令即可:
          /usr/local/webserver/nginx/sbin/nginx -s reload


           ?、?、對于Nginx 0.8.x之前的版本,平滑重啟稍微麻煩一些,按照以下步驟進行即可。輸入以下命令查看Nginx主進程號:
          ps -ef | grep "nginx: master process" | grep -v "grep" | awk -F ' ' '{print $2}'

            屏幕顯示的即為Nginx主進程號,例如:
            6302
            這時,執行以下命令即可使修改過的Nginx配置文件生效:
          kill -HUP 6302

            或者無需這么麻煩,找到Nginx的Pid文件:
          kill -HUP `cat /usr/local/webserver/nginx/nginx.pid`



            七、編寫每天定時切割Nginx日志的腳本
            1、創建腳本/usr/local/webserver/nginx/sbin/cut_nginx_log.sh
          vi /usr/local/webserver/nginx/sbin/cut_nginx_log.sh

            輸入以下內容:
          引用
          #!/bin/bash
          # This script run at 00:00

          # The Nginx logs path
          logs_path="/usr/local/webserver/nginx/logs/"

          mkdir -p ${logs_path}$(date -d "yesterday" +"%Y")/$(date -d "yesterday" +"%m")/
          mv ${logs_path}access.log ${logs_path}$(date -d "yesterday" +"%Y")/$(date -d "yesterday" +"%m")/access_$(date -d "yesterday" +"%Y%m%d").log
          kill -USR1 `cat /usr/local/webserver/nginx/nginx.pid`


            2、設置crontab,每天凌晨00:00切割nginx訪問日志
          crontab -e

            輸入以下內容:
          引用
          00 00 * * * /bin/bash  /usr/local/webserver/nginx/sbin/cut_nginx_log.sh




            本文若有小的修改,會第一時間在以下網址發布:
            http://blog.www.lukangtou.cn/nginx_php_v6/



            附:文章修改歷史

            ● [2010年03月04日] [Version 6.0] 新建

            ● [2010年04月16日] [Version 6.1] Nginx版本升級到0.8.35。

            ● [2010年05月14日] [Version 6.2] Nginx版本升級到0.8.36。MySQL版本升級到5.5.3-m3,my.cnf配置文件中的thread_concurrency、master-connect-retry參數在新版本中不支持,已經注釋掉。

            ● [2010年07月26日] [Version 6.3] Nginx版本升級到0.8.46。PHP版本升級到5.2.14。其他軟件也做了相應的升級。開啟php.ini中的cgi.fix_pathinfo=0,防止Nginx文件類型錯誤解析漏洞。

           ?。ㄈ耐辏?




          技術大類 » Web服務器 | 評論(631) | 引用(0) | 閱讀(1114426)
          Cat. Email Homepage
          2010-3-4 20:51
          VPN Homepage
          2010-3-4 20:54
          不錯,第6版了
          axengine
          2010-3-4 21:18
          so fun 先看看
          苦咖啡 Homepage
          2010-3-4 21:24
          文章是很不錯,???
          Black-Xstar Email Homepage
          2010-3-4 21:31
          要是有change log就好了。
          FFCZ
          2010-3-4 22:23
          不怎么敢用mysql5.5版本,再等等。是否考慮在/etc/rc.local加入mysql start
          alect Email Homepage
          2010-3-4 22:35
          建議把mysql的下載地址不使用sohu的鏡像,速度超慢……
          張宴 回復于 2010-3-5 13:19
          北京網通下載速度還不錯。
          joseph
          2010-3-4 23:16
          閱了
          網絡旺旺 Email Homepage
          2010-3-4 23:16
          有幸在第一頁。eaccelerator感覺還是有些兼容問題?
          大碗茶 Email
          2010-3-5 00:36
          sphinx 0.9.9 不支持 mysql 5.5?
          matrix
          2010-3-5 04:21
          關注
          zjsz007
          2010-3-5 04:36
          留下記憶的腳印
          支持Nginxshy
          phoebus Email Homepage
          2010-3-5 08:29
          我3號按第五版剛剛配置好。。。。杯具?。?!
          馬上重來,謝謝張老師的教程。
          hsg4ok
          2010-3-5 09:18
          高含金量?。。?!
          freeke Email Homepage
          2010-3-5 09:18
          建議博主做成PDF版本,方便愛好者提供下載
          張宴 回復于 2010-3-5 09:47
          PDF不好復制命令、配置文件內容。
          JoAnStrive Email Homepage
          2010-3-5 09:31
          呵呵,支持下.
          c61811
          2010-3-5 10:12
          好樣的 一直關注在。。。
          cocoleewen Homepage
          2010-3-5 10:27
          擴展閱讀:CentOS 5.x下 xbt tracker服務器的架設
          http://blog.sina.com.cn/s/blog_4e05171b0100h0ey.html
          cocoleewen Homepage
          2010-3-5 10:28
          博主請更正:啟動php-cgi進程,監聽127.0.0.1的9000端口,進程數為200(如果服務器內存小于3GB,可以只開啟64個進程)。明明配置文件中<value name="max_children">128</value>  只是128,哪來的200?
          是否是筆誤?
          張宴 回復于 2010-3-5 11:30
          謝謝提醒。筆誤,已更正。
          ahong Homepage
          2010-3-5 10:33
          有兩個問題:
          1、MYSQL的root密碼默認為空啊。建議用phpmyadmin更改。
          2、配置開機自動啟動Nginx + PHP:
          ulimit -SHn 65535
          /usr/local/webserver/php/sbin/php-fpm start
          /usr/local/webserver/nginx/sbin/nginx
          建議還加上自動啟動MYSQL:
          data0/mysql/3306/mysql start
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